5 Secrets to Foot and Ankle Tendinitis

One of the most common foot and ankle injuries is tendinitis (also called tendonitis or tendinopathy). Tendinitis occurs when the tissue that connects muscles to bone becomes inflamed. This can be caused by excessive exercise, a sudden increase in activity level, or poor arch support of your shoes—or any combination of these things! Other causes include: running on hard surfaces …

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

What Is the Tarsal Tunnel?    The tarsal tunnel is a narrow space that lies on the inside of the ankle next to the ankle bones. The tunnel is covered with a thick ligament (the flexor retinaculum) that protects and maintains the structures contained within the tunnel—arteries, veins, tendons and nerves. One of these structures is the posterior tibial nerve, …

Talar Dome Lesion

What Is a Talar Dome Lesion?    The ankle joint is composed of the bottom of the tibia (shin) bone and the top of the talus (ankle) bone. The top of the talus is dome-shaped and is completely covered with cartilage—a tough, rubbery tissue that enables the ankle to move smoothly. A talar dome lesion is an injury to the …

Shin Splints

Shin splints (Exertional Compartment Syndrome) is a term to describe pain and swelling in the front of the lower legs. The pain usually appears after and is aggravated by repetitive activities, such as running or walking. Contributing causes are flat feet, calf tightness, improper training techniques, worn-out or improper shoes/sneakers as well as running or walking on uneven surfaces. The …

Peroneal Tendinitis

What Are the Peroneal Tendons?   A tendon is a band of tissue that connects a muscle to a bone. The two peroneal tendons in the foot run side by side behind the outer ankle bone. One peroneal tendon attaches to the outer part of the midfoot, while the other tendon runs under the foot and attaches near the inside …

Os Trigonum Syndrome

What Is the Os Trigonum?   The os trigonum is an extra (accessory) bone that sometimes develops behind the ankle bone (talus). It is connected to the talus by a fibrous band. The presence of an os trigonum in one or both feet is congenital (present at birth). It becomes evident during adolescence when one area of the talus does …

Haglund’s (Heel Bump) Disease

What Is Haglund’s Deformity?   Haglund’s deformity is a bony enlargement on the back of the heel. The soft tissue near the Achilles tendon becomes irritated when the bony enlargement rubs against shoes. This often leads to painful bursitis, which is an inflammation of the bursa (a fluid-filled sac between the tendon and bone). Causes Haglund’s deformity is often called …

Equinus (tight Achilles)

What Is Equinus?   Equinus is a condition in which the upward bending motion of the ankle joint is limited. Someone with equinus lacks the flexibility to bring the top of the foot toward the front of the leg. Equinus can occur in one or both feet. When it involves both feet, the limitation of motion is sometimes worse in …

Ankle Fractures

What Is an Ankle Fracture?    A fracture is a partial or complete break in a bone. Fractures in the ankle can range from the less serious avulsion injuries (small pieces of bone that have been pulled off) to severe shattering-type breaks of the tibia, fibula or both. Ankle fractures are common injuries most often caused by the ankle rolling …

Chronic Ankle Instability

What Is Chronic Ankle Instability?   Chronic ankle instability is a condition characterized by a recurring giving way of the outer (lateral) side of the ankle. This condition often develops after repeated ankle sprains. Usually, the giving way occurs while walking or doing other activities, but it can also happen when you’re just standing. Many athletes, as well as others, …