Ingrown Toenails

Ingrown nails, the most common nail impairment, are nails whose corners or sides dig painfully into the soft tissue of nail grooves, often leading to irritation, redness, and swelling. Usually, toenails grow straight out. Sometimes, however, one or both corners or sides curve and grow into the flesh. The big toe is usually the victim of this condition, but other toes can also become affected.

Ingrown toenail may be caused by:

  • Improperly trimmed nails (Trim then straight across, not longer than the tip of the toes. Do not round off corners. Use toenail clippers.)
  • Heredity
  • Shoe pressure; crowding of toes
  • Repeated trauma to the feet from normal activities

If you suspect an infection due to an ingrown toenail, immerse the foot in a warm salt water soak, or a basin of soapy water, then apply an antiseptic and bandage the area.

People with diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, or other circulatory disorders must avoid any form of self treatment and seek podiatric medical care as soon as possible.

Other “do-it-yourself” treatments, including any attempt to remove any part of an infected nail or the use of over-the-counter medications, should be avoided. Nail problems should be evaluated and treated by your podiatrist, who can diagnose the ailment, and then prescribe medication or another appropriate treatment.

A podiatrist will resect the ingrown portion of the nail and may prescribe a topical or oral medication to treat the infection. If ingrown nails are a chronic problem, your podiatrist can perform a procedure to permanently prevent ingrown nails. The corner of the nail that ingrows, along with the matrix or root of that piece of nail, are removed by use of a chemical, a laser, or by other methods.

Prevention

  • Proper hygiene and regular inspection of the feet and toes are the first lines of defense against fungal nails.
  • Clean and dry feet resist disease.
  • Washing the feet with soap and water, remembering to dry thoroughly, is the best way to prevent an infection.
  • Shower shoes should be worn when possible in public areas.
  • Shoes, socks, or hosiery should be changed more than once daily.
  • Toenails should be clipped straight across so that the nail does not extend beyond the tip of the toe.
  • Wear shoes that fit well and are made of materials that breathe.
  • Avoid wearing excessively tight hosiery, which promote moisture.
  • Socks made of synthetic fiber tend to “wick” away moisture faster than cotton or wool socks.
  • Disinfect instruments used to cut nails.
  • Disinfect home pedicure tools.
  • Don’t apply polish to nails suspected of infection—those that are red, discolored, or swollen, for example.

Nail Care Tips

  • Proper hygiene and regular inspection of the feet and toes are the first lines of defense against ingrown toenails.
  • Washing the feet with soap and water, remembering to dry thoroughly, is the best way to prevent an infection.
  • Toenails should be clipped straight across so that the nail does not extend beyond the tip of the toe.
  • Wear shoes that fit well and are made of materials that breathe.
  • Disinfect instruments used to cut nails.
  • Disinfect home pedicure tools.
  • Don’t apply polish to nails suspected of infection—those that are red, discolored, or swollen, for example.